Board decides that aid for education
should continue to be mainly for qualitative improvements in primary
schooling and for non-formal education, especially as eventual
components in basic services. Agrees to expand aid which helps
countries build up their national
capacities in services benefiting children.
Board agrees that co-operation in expanded immunization programme
should be a main UNICEF priority with provisions of vaccines, drugs
and other materials continuing sufficiently long to have a lasting
impact. Reaffirms its conviction that UNICEF should continue to
derive its revenues entirely from voluntary contributions with the
mainstay being contributions from governments for general resources;
also reaffirms the importance UNICEF attaches to special purpose
contributions and to contributions from the general public.
Board increases flexibility of aid to benefit children in the least
developed and other low income countries. Agrees to improve forward
planning of UNICEF’s programme of work. Sends message to the tenth
special session of the General Assembly, devoted to disarmament,
with an appeal that a portion of the savings from a reduction in
armaments be used to meet the minimum requirements of children.
Alma Ata Conference on Health for All (WHO/UNICEF), promotes
holistic concept of primary health care with prioritization of
Working group established by GA within the Human Rights Commission
to draft Convention on the Rights of the Child. UNICEF helps
facilitate NGO input and influences inclusion of survival and
development rights in addition to protection rights.
UNICEF revenue is $211 million,
exceeding the $200 million target. Considerable support is voiced
for Executive Director’s proposal that UNICEF set a $500 million
target by the mid-1980s, to help meet
higher national goals for children set during the International Year
of the Child.
Observance of the International Year
of the Child generates greatly expanded concern with the problems of
children and much new activity. There is also a growing recognition
among governments of the need for a regular review of the situation
of children and of the policies and programmes affecting them.
At the end of the
Year the United Nations General Assembly designates UNICEF as the
“lead agency” of the United Nations system responsible for
coordinating the development aspects of the follow-up activities of
Executive Board meets for the second time in Latin America - in
Mexico City. This is preceded by the Special Meeting on Children in
Latin America and the Caribbean.
Board approves for the first time a rolling medium-term work plan
(for the period 1978-1982) which is intended to achieve firmer
long-term planning of UNICEF’s work, lead to more long-term country
programming and be helpful to donors. Board agrees on a revenue
target of $250 million for 1980.
Board approves recommendations by the UNICEF/WHO Joint Committee on
Health Policy which set forth a number of specific ways for more
support by UNICEF for primary health care (including expanded
programmes on immunization, provision of essential drugs and control
of diarrhoeal disease); drinking water in rural and certain types of
urban areas and for excreta disposal and environmental sanitation.
In addition, Board agrees that UNICEF could help promote and
safeguard child mental health through community-oriented approaches,
using primary health care and other existing services.
In September, the Secretary-General designates UNICEF the “lead
agency” of the United Nations system in relief operations in
Kampuchea. In October, UNICEF - jointly with the International
Committee of the Red Cross - and in association with the World Food
Programme - begins a major relief and rehabilitation programme in Kampuchea.
UNICEF total contributions reached $253 million, including $31
million for Kampuchean relief.
On 1 January, Mr. James P. Grant
succeeds Hr. Henry R. Labouisse as Executive Director.
Richard Jolly is appointed
Deputy Executive Director for programmes, bringing expertise as
development economist with anti-poverty focus.
Executive Board holds special session on Kampuchean relief
operations in February and endorses the lines of action set out by
the Executive Director to be followed by UNICEF in the relief
operation during 1980.
At its regular session in May, the Board decides that UNICEF’s
follow-up of IYC should be integrated with the Fund’s ongoing work,
promoting a wider global perspective regarding all children and
involving more extensive co-operation in developing countries in
policies and services relate related to child development;
those directed to the physical well-being of children.
The Board hears preliminary views of the Executive Director on how
changing demands on UNICEF to accelerate progress in the well-being
of children might be met; discusses the main objectives and general
strategy of UNICEF’s work; and agrees on general directions over the
next few years in a number of fields, including planning and
programming at the country level. Board focuses on UNICEF
co-operation in formal and non-formal education, in national and
local services affecting women and girls and in the prevention and
rehabilitation of childhood disability as part of community-based
Board endorses UNICEF/WHO joint efforts to develop an
international code of marketing infant formula products.
Board also discusses relief operations in Kampuchea and other “loud”
emergency situations in Africa and Asia.
Income in 1980 is estimated at $311 million, including $61 million
for Kampuchean relief. UNICEF aid is now going to 110 countries and
territories, including new programmes in China and Zimbabwe.
Total contributions reached US$313 million.
A special Executive Board session in
January increases assistance to nine African nations stricken by
drought and civil strife. At its regular session in May the Board
agrees that this extra effort continue over the next few years.
at the January session, an initiative by Prince Talal Bin Abdul Aziz
Al Saud towards the creation of what later in the year becomes the
Arab Gulf Programme for the United Nations Development Organizations
is outlined. The Programme, comprised of seven
States: Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the
United Arab Emirates, has the objective of supporting the social and
humanitarian activities of the United Nations in developing
countries. It pledges to UNICEF for 1981-82 a total of $40 million,
$25 million from governmental sources plus an additional $15 million
from the private sector.
At the Secretary-General’s request, UNICEF continues to be the "lead
agency" for the United Nations system in the humanitarian relief
operation for the Kampuchean people through 1981. At its regular
session in May, the Executive Board considers UNICEF’s involvement
in emergencies; there is general agreement that while
UNICEF has an important special role to play in emergency relief,
this should not be to the detriment of the long-term development
work benefiting children which constitutes UNICEF’s primary mandate.
In discussing UNICEF’s co-operation in the International Year of
Disabled Persons (IYDP), the Board sets the highest priority on
prevention, including immunization, training for community health
workers and midwives, and the education of future mothers.
Joint WHO/UNICEF efforts to develop an international code of
marketing for breast milk substitutes provide the basis for an
international code adopted at the World Health Assembly in May.
UNICEF and WHO continue to co-operate in national efforts to support
breastfeeding and appropriate weaning practices.
Total contributions reached US$291 million.
Launch of Child Survival and
Development (CSD) Revolution (in the
annual State of
the World’s Children Report 1982-83) to accelerate actions to
promote child health and survival by concentrating on effective,
low-cost health measures based on GOBI-FFF (growth monitoring, oral
rehydration; breastfeeding; immunization; family planning; food
supplementation; female education. Immunization and oral rehydration
become the ‘twin engines’ of the revolution.
Following agreement reached at a
special Board session in April, membership of the Executive Board is
enlarged from 30 to 41 seats, to be elected by rotation for
three-year terms by the UN Economic and Social Council and to
include nine members from Africa, nine from Asia, six from Latin
America, 12 from Western Europe and other areas, and four from
Eastern Europe. The 41st seat is to rotate among these regional
The Board approves a broad-based integrated approach to the problems
of urban children through community participation, with special
emphasis on childhood malnutrition, the situation of women,
pre-school and day-care services, responsible parenthood and family
planning, abandoned and disabled children, and the provision of
adequate water supply and sanitation. It also recommends that this
strategy be continued and supported in additional countries, as well
as expanded in countries where this approach is now operational
The Board strongly endorses the continuing efforts to introduce and
strengthen institutions and services benefiting children at the
intermediate and local levels, with community participation being a
part of this effort wherever possible.
The Board approves a five-year initiative under which UNICEF will
collaborate with WHO to help reduce hunger and malnutrition among
children and mothers, (the Joint Nutrition Support Programme -
countries, the value of private sector fundraising exceeds
In a message addressed to the Second Special Session on Disarmament
at UN Headquarters, 7 June to 9 July, the Executive Board appeals to
the UN General Assembly to take whatever steps it can to ensure a
reduction in armaments “so that a part of the savings can be
channeled through national or multinational programmes" to meet the
minimum requirements of adequate nutrition, safe water, primary
health care and suitable education for all children.
A benefit soccer game for UNICEF is attended by almost 77,000 people
and watched on television in more than 60 countries by a viewing
audience estimated to total one billion people. The FIFA All-Star
Soccer Game at Giants Stadium, New Jersey, in the U.S.A., is played
by 36 of the world’s greatest players; honorary captains were Franz
Beckenbauer - for “Europe” - and Pele - for “the Rest of the World”.
The emphasis on low-cost measures capable of widespread
implementation without high levels of technical expertise is seen as
particularly appropriate in the current state of the global economy.
UNICEF adopts a
broad-base integrated approach to the problem of urban children
through community participation.
Xavier Perez de Cuellar (Peru)
takes office as
Secretary-General of UN, serving until December 1991.
Total contributions reached US$378
The Board approves broad UNICEF objectives for the five-year
medium-term. These are: to promote child survival and reduce infant
and child mortality; to help improve the situation and welfare of
children; and to help improve the situation and welfare of women,
especially mothers and poorer women.
On the subject of alternative programme approaches in different
socio-economic situations, the Board approves the systematic use of
the infant mortality rate (IMR) along with, notably, GNP per capita
and child population, both to guide content and to fix levels of
UNICEF assistance. A wider selection of indicators, including
morbidity, maternal death rates, and literacy, are also to be used.
In this way, UNICEF is to respond more effectively to the changing
pattern of children’s needs in the various countries, taking account
differences in levels of infant mortality as well as of a country’s
The child survival and development revolution
cannot be achieved and sustained without advances in women’s
literacy, children’s primary
education and a community’s general level of education; the Board
endorses the aims of a programme to be undertaken jointly with
UNESCO, to foster universal primary education and literacy (UPEL).
The first phase of this initiative involves five-year assistance
programmes in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Nepal, Nicaragua and Peru.
The Board gives special
attention to the concept of women as economic providers since it
more accurately reflects the multiplicity of women's potential as
key partners in development. UNICEF's support to the development of
income-earning skills now involves training in management and
marketing, and guidance in how to obtain access to credit.
The Board welcomes continued expansion of UNICEF urban activities
and calls for more comprehensive support for urban children
including: special shelter facilities; sanitation and nutrition
programrnes; job preparation; organized community involvement;
against child exploitation; prevention of juvenile delinquency; and
help for abandoned children.
The Board adopts a resolution making Hr. Danny Kaye an Honorary
Delegate as a token of “its gratitude and respect for his
contributions and leadership as the Number One Goodwill Ambassador
for UNICEF”. In 1983, Mr. Kaye, whose example has been emulated by
others in the public eye as well as inspiring millions of citizen
volunteers, completed his thirtieth year with UNICEF as an untiring
advocate for children.
Total contributions reached US$342 million.
UNICEF responds to growing crisis of
African drought and famine by
launching an international appeal for assistance to 21 affected
countries, strengthening field office capacity, and publishing (in
1985) Within human reach: a future for Africa’s
children. A special meeting at the United
Nations draws attention to the situation of African mothers and
children resulting from the drought and the global recession.
UNICEF’s goodwill ambassadors are mobilized: Liv Ullmann visits
Africa and draws the attention of the media to the growing crisis in
West Africa; Tetsuko Kuroyanagi visits East Africa, which results in
widespread attention in Japan to the crisis as well as raising
In Ethiopia UNICEF helps pioneer a cash-for-food community work
scheme with far-reaching implications for approaches to emergency
relief and rehabilitation in the future. Provision of cash support
allows food to be bought in local markets and ensures that villagers
are not forced to abandon homes and productive employment to seek
food in distant towns and relief centres.
The UNICEF Executive Board endorses a comprehensive approach to
early childhood development that includes attention to the child’s
cognitive and psychological development, particularly through early
childhood stimulation, as well as health and physical growth. Such
broader efforts are expected to buttress the “leading edge”
intervention of UNICEF’s child survival and development programme,
aimed at direct and specific effect on infant and young child
mortality and morbidity.
The global effort to promote oral dehydration therapy (ORT), the
most effective treatment for diarrhoeal dehydration in young
children, gathers momentum. Along with WHO, UNICEF supports research
and development of improved oral dehydration solutions.
UNICEF directly provides over 65 million packets of oral dehydration
salts, and helps more than 20 countries produce the salts locally.
‘Bellagio Conference’ brings together Rockefeller Foundation,
UNICEF, WHO, World Bank, and UNDP to discuss major expansion of
immunization, fostering the creation of an influential Task
Force for Child Survival and Development meeting periodically
thereafter to discuss policy and programmes. The Task Force is a key
example of successful alliance-building and partnerships for
children which periodically brought together health ministers,
senior officials from developing countries, and leaders of major
bilateral and other multilateral aid organizations.
Accelerating immunization activity dramatically increases
demand for vaccines. UNICEF supplies vaccines worth a total of $7.5
million to some 8O countries. as well as supporting logistical
systems, particularly the “cold chain”, which ensure their
effectiveness to the point of use.
UNICEF played a leading role in negotiations leading to an agreement
by the Nestle Company to abide by the International Code of
Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, and a consequent lifting of
the Nestle boycott.
UNICEF, with WHO and UNDP, sponsors an interregional seminar in Sri
Lanka on “Health for All” , attended by 28 ministers and senior
decision makers from 13 countries.
The new UNICEF Procurement and Assembly Centre (UNIPAC) in
Copenhagen is inaugurated by Denmark’s Queen Margrethe. Rent on the
$7 million facility is waived by the Danish Government.
The Executive Board authorizes the lease of office space built to the particular
requirements of UNICEF and will be known as UNICEF House.
The Executive Board reappoints James P. Grant to a second five-year
term as Executive Director beginning in 1985.
The total UNICEF income for the year is $332 million.
Launch of drive for universal child
immunization (UCI) 1990 with highest endorsement from the Secretary-General
who appeals to all Heads of State to provide the necessary
The Executive Board reviews UNICEF’s
response to women’s concerns, and reaffirms UNICEF’s commitment to
strengthening the social, health and economic conditions of women.
living in poverty. Women’s 1iteracy and education programmed are
emphasized both as a means to improve women’s lives and to support
child survival and development.
fire in El Salvador’s civil war
UNICEF-supported promotion of the concept of ‘children as a zone of
peace’ and ‘periods of tranquility’ for humanitarian assistance,
allowing for three days of mass
immunization of children under the age of five.
This approach was
later applied successfully in Lebanon (1987); Sudan (1989); Iraq
(1991) and elsewhere, with increasing frequency in the 1990s.
Half a million children are saved during the year through the use of
oral dehydration therapy.
The total UNICEF income for the year is $362 million.
Total of developing countries
seriously engaged in accelerated efforts to achieve universal
child immunization approaches 100. 78 Heads of State or
Government from both developing and industrialized
nations personally pledge their active support, and 400
non-governmental organizations (NCOS) commit themselves to the
success of those programmes. UNICEF contributes US$57 million to
immunization activities, 17 per cent of its total programme
Vaccine distribution increases 24 per cent with an 80 per
cent increase in the
usage of the most difficult to deliver measles
vaccine and an increase of nearly 100 per cent in the use of
tetanus/toxoid vaccine. Total of doses delivered: 500 million.
Oral rehydration salts global supply increases to nearly six times
the amount produced in 1982 and is available to roughly half of
the 487 million children under five years of age in the developing
world. As a result of universal child immunization and oral
rehydration therapy one and a half million children are still alive
in December of 1986 who would not have been had these efforts not
been underway throughout the year.
Importance of combining these health techniques with social
mobilization at all levels of society is acknowledged, including
other Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) measures of
growth monitoring, breast-feeding, promotion of female literacy,
family spacing and food supplementation.
Sport Aid mobilizes public concern over the critical
situation in Africa and garners a net contribution of more than
US$30 million for emergency and poverty-related efforts, more than
half of which goes to UNICEF.
UNICEF adopts formally revised logo of mother and child with lower
Programme concept "Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances"
is conceived, opening up child protection issues.
The first Conference on "Technical Co-operation in Implementation of
the Strategies for the Child Survival and Development Programme and
Health for All by the Year 2000" is held in Zagreb.
Child nutrition activities include: co-operating in nutrition
programmes in 98 countries: 37 in Africa, 22 in the Americas, 29 in
Asia, and 10 in the Middle East and North Africa region; helping to
expand applied nutrition programmes in 18,300 villages, equipping
nutrition centres and demonstration areas, community and school
orchards and gardens, fish and poultry hatcheries; providing
stipends to train 9,000 village-level nutrition workers; delivering
some 15,460 metric tons of donated foods (including grain mixtures,
nonfat dry milk, special weaning foods and nutrition supplements)
through nutrition and emergency feeding programmes.
Child health activities include: co-operating in child health
programmes in 113 countries: 42 in Africa, 24 in the Americas, 34 in
Asia and 13 in the Middle East and
North Africa region; providing grants for training, orientation and
refresher courses for 410,900 health
workers: doctors, nurses, public health workers, medical assistants,
midwives and traditional birth attendants;
providing technical supplies and equipment for 61,500
health centres of various kinds — especially rural health
centres and subcentres; supplying medicines and
vaccines against tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, typhoid,
measles, polio and other diseases.
Water supply and sanitation activities include: co-operating
in programmes to supply safe water and
improved sanitation in 93 countries: 36 in Africa, 21 in
the Americas, 25 in Asia and 11 in the Middle East and
North Africa region: completed approximately 83,468 water supply
systems, including 71,341 open/dug wells with handpumps, 1,203 piped
systems, with 567 motordriven pumps and 10,357 other systems such as
spring protection, rain water collection and water treatment plants;
benefited some 18.7 million persons from its rural water supply
systems; completed 293,404 excreta disposal installations benefiting
UNICEF cooperates with the Ministry of Education, the AIDS Control
Programme, the Ministry of Health and WHO in Uganda since 1986 to
combat the deadly AIDS virus through education.
Total income reached US$463 million.