Kofi A. Annan
(Ghana) takes office as
Secretary-General of UN, serving until December 2006.
Challenges facing UNICEF in 1997: intensified
efforts for achieving the year 2000 goals set at the World Summit
for Children in 1990; preventing deaths of 600,000 women each year
from complications in pregnancy and childbirth; educating 140
million school-age children who are still not in school, 60 per cent
of them girls; helping 250 million working children, many trapped in
dangerous and exploitative labour; and providing safe water disposal
for the 2.9 billion people, half of them children, at risk of
disease and death because of inadequate sanitation. In a world of
plenty, malnutrition contributes to nearly 7 million child deaths
Renewing the UN: UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan issues his proposals for "Renewing the
United Nations: a programme for reform". The reform also calls for
greater coordination and harmonization among agencies of the UN,
with the creation of a UN Development Group promising greater
coordination and integration of operational activities for
development. UNICEF participates actively in this group, which
includes the establishment at country level of the UN Development
Assistance framework (UNDAF) and the introduction of processes
for Common Country Assessments (CCA).
Programme processes within UNICEF: 1997-2000 described as a time
of transformation for UNICEF which saw the need to push hard for the
fullest possible achievement of the year 2000 goals and to go
even further, working towards a new global agenda for children in
the 21st century, based solidly in child rights. Major
preoccupations: include: Management Excellence, UN reform, and
drawing up a far-reaching agenda for the next millennium which will
incorporate the lessons learned over the last five decades. It
will also devise ways to benefit from unparalleled advances in
communications, science and technology. Addressing the main
obstacles for children and women, such as poverty, gender
discrimination, exploitation and violence, it will amount to nothing
less than a global plan of action to kick-start progress for
children and women in the 21st century”.
International Conference on Child Labour: UNICEF joins other
participants at the conference sponsored by the Government of Norway
in Oslo in adopting a global agenda for eliminating the worst
forms of hazardous and exploitative employment of children.
UNICEF collaborated with ILO on advocacy campaign in preparation.
UNICEF follow-up includes development of multi-country projects
based on education as a preventive strategy against child labour. By
2000, UNICEF helps 29 countries introduce education programmes aimed
at preventing child labour.
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production
and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on Their Destruction,
signed by 123 nations in Ottawa. UNICEF helped draft the convention
and strongly promoted its ratification and implementation. In 1992,
UNICEF had joined the call for an all-out ban on landmines, and in
1995 it announced it would refrain from procuring goods or services
from any company involved in landmine production for sale. It
cooperated with and supported the International Campaign to Ban
Landmines, a coalition of more than 1,000 NGOs whose coordinator,
Jody Williams, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1997, and also used its
representatives as ‘ambassadors’ or envoys to lobby governments for
ratification. It is the lead agency for landmine awareness education
and in 1997 produced ‘The Silent Shout’ – a 10-minute sensitization
video for children .
Safe Motherhood Follow-up Conference co-sponsored by UNICEF
in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Guidelines for monitoring the availability
and use of obstetric services published jointly with UNFPA and WHO.
Renewing the UN: Kofi Annan takes over from Boutros Ghali as SG
of UN in January. Launch of SG’s UN reform with adoption by GA
on 20 June of the SG’s Agenda for Development. Building on
agreements reached in the international conferences of the 1990s, it
represents a major step in articulating an international consensus
concerning the goals and requirements for socio-economic development
and provides a comprehensive framework for international development
cooperation, recognizing the importance not only of economic growth,
but of democracy, human rights, popular participation, good
governance and the empowerment of women as well. In response to the
agenda, UNICEF worked together with sister organizations of UNDG
(UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, WFP) to create a common development
assistance framework (UNDAF) and chaired sub-group on programme
policy development for UNDAF. UNICEF saw its participation in UN
reform strengthened by its own internal reform processes in
Management Excellence, which was seen to help streamline operations
and devolve more management functions to regional and field
Appointment of Olara Otunnu as Special Representative of the UN
Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict (September)
with a mandate to promote the protection, rights and welfare of
children at every phase of conflict: preventively before conflict
erupts, in the midst of conflict, and in post-conflict situations.
Ted Turner establishes UN Foundation with a $1 billion grant to the
Development with a human face produced, tracing 10 developing
countries over the past 3-4 decades, showing how they achieved
significant social development despite uneven economic progress;
Cartoons for Children’s rights campaign launched in December
1997, as an animation consortium producing 30-second spots on
articles of the CRC and donating to UNICEF for broadcasters free of
Total contributions reached US$907 million.
Follow up to the World Summit: At 53rd session
of GA, SG reports on progress made in follow-up to WSC, recalling
decision to hold the Special Session, and referring to possible
‘additional’ event, with particular attention to the participation
of civil society and children themselves. SG also calls upon
UNICEF to coordinate a global review of progress in implementation
of WSC, drawing on subnational, national and regional reviews
and specific thematic debates including those held in connection
with the 10th anniversary of the CRC. Review to provide an overall
assessment of progress achieved, including lessons learned, analysis
of main factors inhibiting progress and overview of remaining
challenges and key issues, followed by specific recommendations for
UNICEF Programme guidelines aim at accelerated progress on the
goals. Targeted key WSC goals including increased immunization
coverage and improved access to education in countries where
progress was most needed. The 4 over-arching goals aim to 1) reduce
death and illness among young children and prevent childhood
disability; 2) reduce maternal deaths, disabilities and illness; 3)
improve children’s access to education and enhance educational
quality; 4) reduce exploitation, abuse and harm of children. Other
priorities identified for early child care; adolescent health and
development; improved data on children and women. At the same time,
progress made on developing a new agenda for the beginning of the
next century to ensure that collaborative work with colleagues and
partners has a profound and lasting results: “As the new millennium
dawns, we will play a greater part in addressing the causes of
poverty as well as the symptoms, to help break the persistent
patterns that underlie inequality, violence and wasted human
potential. UNICEF programmes will increasingly aim to support
children and women in critical periods of the life cycle – early
childhood, primary school years, adolescence, and the reproductive
years – when interventions can truly make a lasting difference”.
UNICEF adopts a human rights-based programming approach with
significant implications for all aspects of programming.
UNICEF Medium-term plan for the period 1998-2001
(E/ICEF/1998/13), approved by the Executive Board, covering the
critical transition bridging the last years of the 20th century and
the first years of the 21st. Informed by lessons learned in the
process of implementing the WSC plan of action and through the near
universal ratification of the CRC, the plan is organized around 4
major organizational priorities: Enhancing partnerships and
promoting advocacy on children’s rights; Programme priorities;
Improving the availability and use of data in critical areas; and
Strengthening management and operations. Key programme
priorities include: reducing young child mortality and morbidity;
improving early childhood care for child growth and development;
preventing child disability; improving access to and quality of
basic education; improving adolescent health and development;
protection from exploitation, violence and abuse; prevention of
gender discrimination and promotion of gender equality; and reducing
maternal mortality and morbidity.
Development of a life-cycle approach and framework for
programming and policy.
Martigny Consultation, September 1998 – Global Consultation of
UNICEF Representatives to formulate a set of recommendations to
improve its response to the needs of children and women in unstable
situations, within the context of a mainstreamed programme
approach and greater predictability. Leads to development of
UNICEF’s Core Corporate Commitments in emergencies approved by the
Executive Board in 2000.
Roll Back Malaria Campaign launched for this major killer of
children, with UNICEF joining WHO, UNDP and WB to strengthen health
services, make effective and affordable anti-malarial drugs
available to communities in need; explore research into a malaria
vaccine, support development of even more effective drugs; and
promote the use of mosquito nets treated with insecticide.
Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched with WHO,
UNICEF, Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, and other partners, redoubles global efforts to wipe out
the crippling disease. In 1998, the polio virus still circulates in
50 countries; by the end of 2000, the number falls to 2000.
Indicators for global monitoring of child rights:
International meeting sponsored by UNICEF, 9-12 February 1998,
Geneva Switzerland, with the aim of developing additional indicators
to monitor progress on the realization of child rights. Results in
the incorporation of key questions on child work, birth
registration, orphanhood and disabilities in the Multiple Indicator
Cluster Surveys (MICS II) data collection efforts at end-decade.
Global March against Child Labour: Massive NGO-driven event
designed to raise awareness of the issue – supported by UNICEF
through its National Committees.
Youth Leadership Forum in July, sponsored by UNICEF and Time
Warner, brought 36 young people to UN NY as part of Summer of
Goodwill/1998 Goodwill Games.
UN Foundation approves $18 million for UNICEF. Money to be
used for child health and nutrition and women’s health and
Agreement on participation in EFA assessment (UNDP, UNFPA,
UNICEF, UNESCO, and World Bank) to review achievements made in
education since the Jomtien Conference in 1990.
Joint UNICEF/WHO Committee on Health Policy (JCHP) expanded to
include UNFPA, and thereafter known as the Coordinating Committee on
Adoption of Rome Statute for International Criminal Court, which
include crimes against humanity and war crimes against children and
UN Security Council debates children and armed conflict for the
first time, reflecting the magnitude of international concern for
the impact of wars on children.
In Angola, more than 600,000 children actualized their
right to a name and nationality during a countrywide campaign to
document the births of all unregistered children in a UNICEF and
partners supported effort.
In countries with high child mortality, UNICEF helps half
of all children receive at least one high-dose of vitamin A
UNICEF assists dozens of countries in building their
capacity to gather vital information on children and women so that
problems can be identified and addressed.
UNICEF provides humanitarian assistance to 55 countries
compared to 15 countries in 1994. Nearly 50 million women and
children need such assistance and protection worldwide. Armed
conflict continues in Afghanistan, Yugoslavia and Sierra Leone.
Hurricane Mitch unleashed the worst destruction by a natural
disaster in 50 years in Central America. In Peru, 90 per cent of the
country was affected by the El Nino phenomenon. And floods devastate
large areas of Bangladesh, China and the Horn of Africa. Special
attention is given to addressing the rights of children and women
that occur in times of crisis.
Total contributions reached US$966 million.
sharpening definition of programme focus and global agenda beyond
2000: ( “The Focus of UNICEF’s Work Beyond 2000”,
CF/EXD/IC/1999-02 and “The future global agenda for children-
imperatives for the 21st century” (E/ICEF/1999/10, 13 April 1999),
presented to UNICEF Executive Board at June 1999 annual session.
Presents preliminary recommendations on future action for children
and the focus of UNICEF work beyond 2000. Recommendations include a
call for concerted global action to address the main challenges
facing children and women, including: gender discrimination;
HIV/AIDS; declining Official Development
Assistance (ODA) and debt
relief; growing disparities, instability and conflict.
GA resolution 54/93 on the end-decade review and Special Session
for Children: reiterates previous call (in resolution 51/186,
1996) for end-decade review of WSC achievements; schedules the
Special Session for September 2001 and sets out its scope;
establishes an open-ended preparatory committee, and calls for broad
participation of preparatory processes. The resolution also requests
the Secretary-General, with the support of UNICEF, to assist in
providing substantive input to the preparatory process and at the
End decade review processes begin to get underway, with
development of MICS II and guidance notes to field offices.
Leadership Initiative for Children launched by UNICEF
(CF/EXD/1999-002, 3/25/1999) as stimulus for renewed commitment to
children at all levels. UNICEF regional offices begin events and
GAVI (Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization)
established, with UNICEF a key partner, along with WHO, WB, major
foundations, pharmaceutical vaccine industry, national governments
and others. GAVI is a ground-breaking partnership to help countries
strengthen their immunization services and introduce new and
underused vaccines for children to ensure that all children are
vaccinated with every effective vaccine. UNICEF, now the major
supplier of vaccines to developing countries, serves as GAVI’s
UNICEF joined 9 major commercial airlines to launch the ‘One
World Alliance for UNICEF’ – the first airline alliance to adopt
a charitable cause, with participating airlines pledging to raise
money, including through ‘Change for Good’, the collection of unused
foreign currency from passengers aboard international flights.
Peace and Security Agenda launched by UNICEF at the Security
Council in February, building on UNICEF’s ongoing Anti-War
Agenda, with a set of goals and principals to help guide
international efforts on behalf of children and women in armed
conflict, including measures such as ending the use of child
soldiers, enforcing the Ottawa treaty, protecting children from
sanctions, reducing the availability of small arms/light weapons,
and improving safety for humanitarian workers.
10th anniversary of the adoption of CRC serves as an occasion
for UNICEF-supported special events, particularly at the GA Special
Commemoration session. Activities include a panel discussion,
exhibit, support for children’s views and the launch of ‘Making
Children Count’ , an experimental web-based data base providing
information on CRC implementation measures.
International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) +5
event takes place in New York (30 June – 2 July), to assess
progress since the 1994 Cairo conference and renew commitments for
the future. The review provided growing evidence that the ICPD
agenda is practical and realistic, and that despite all obstacles,
it is being put into practice. The review included reports on
national implementation efforts, global expert meetings and an
international forum at the Hague, organized by UNFA, culminating in
a special session of the United Nations General Assembly, which
identified key actions needed for further implementation of the ICPD
Programme of Action and new benchmarks for measuring progress
towards the ICPD goals.
Entry into force of the Ottawa Convention on the Prohibition of
the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel
Mines, and on their destruction (March).
Adoption of ILO Convention No 182 on the Immediate Elimination of
the Worst Forms of Child Labour (June).
Entry into force of the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare
of the Child (November), providing African states with the first
regional treaty on the rights of children and setting important
standards for protection.
Security Council resolution 1261 on children and armed conflict
(August 25), an illustration of the growing visibility of
children in international peace and security issues.
UNAIDS launches International Partnership against AIDS in Africa.
Joint UNICEF/UNAIDS report published to draw attention to the
magnitude and plight of AIDS orphans worldwide, particularly in SSA;
Joint policy statement on HIV/AIDS and infant feeding issued by WHO,
UNICEF and UNAIDs.
UNICEF prepares report on 20/20 initiative, in preparation for
WSSD+5, with recommendations to strengthen future actions, including
enhanced partnerships, continued monitoring and implementation, ODA
reporting and support, capacity-building and dissemination of best
For a second year in a row, more than two-thirds of the world's
children under five are immunized against polio in a
partnership of Rotary International, UNICEF, WHO and others.
31 million refugees and displaced persons, mostly women and
children, are caught up in conflict situations. 300,000
children are serving in armed forces, often forcibly, as
soldiers and servants, and many are forced into sexual slavery.
About 6,000 children are killed or maimed by landmines
planted in places where children live, play and go to school.
In Kosovo, where schools are decimated during the war, a
UNICEF-led alliance of relief organizations, international donors
and local communities provide alternative spaces for classrooms and
repair schools. 97 per cent of primary schoolchildren were back in
class by the end of 1999.
Global Compact: UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan (in an
address to the World Economic Forum on 31 January 1999) challenges
world business leaders to join in a ‘global compact’ to help build
the social and environmental pillars required to sustain the new
global economy and make globalization work for all the world's
people. His proposal is followed by a series of preparatory meetings
of key partners, prior to the launch of the Compact’s operational
phase at a high-level event at UN Headquarters on 26 July 2000.
Total contributions reached US$1,118 million.
Security Council discussed AIDs
at its meeting in January, reflecting expansion of concern for the
global impact of the epidemic.
1st Global level consultation between UNICEF and civil society
organizations (CSOs) on global movement for children, including
concept of a New Global Agenda (in February 2000), following
which Human Rights Watch convened a ‘Child Rights Caucus’ of
CSOs/NGOs interested in contributing to the substance of the new
global agenda. In May, the Caucus met with UNICEF to outline key
issues they wished to see addressed. They also undertook to continue
the process of dialogue with CSOs/NGOs, including convening meetings
of the Caucus in June at the first substantive prepcom session.
1st Substantive session of the Preparatory Committee )prepcom) (May
30 – 2 June 2000) discusses Emerging issues for children
paper, drawing on previous UNICEF Executive Board report on the
Future Global agenda and extensive technical consultation with a
range of experts in government, UN, NGO and academic community.
Three panel discussions at prepcom with experts discussing
progress and constraints in implementation of the WSC goals;
emerging issues for children; and future actions to address critical
needs at each stage of the life cycle. Significant participation by
NGOs and children.
Consultative processes underway on key elements of a ‘global agenda’
for children – merging into drafting processes for the Special
Session Outcome document (“We the children”).
End-decade review processes: Data-collection activities get
underway, with MICs II conducted in 66 countries as the largest
single data collection effort in history to monitor children’s
rights and well-being. (Demographic and Health surveys conducted
in another 35 countries). Extensive national review processes
receive high-level political commitment; involve a variety of
participants, and draw on a wide range of information sources to
assess progress for children and establish priorities for the
future. By the time of the Special Session in May 2002, 158
national end-decade reports had been received from governments from
all regions of the world, including industrialized countries,
along with 15 reports by UN agencies and others. UNICEF regional
offices and country offices provide their own assessments, all of
which are incorporated into a ‘lessons learned’ exercise led by
UNICEF and feed into the SG’s report on progress and achievements
at end-decade “We the children” (see 2001).
World Education Forum, jointly organized by UNESCO, UNICEF,
UNDP, UNFPA, and World Bank in Dakar in April to review the findings
of the EFA 2000 assessment. The forum confirmed the expanded vision
of education outlined at the 1990 World Conference on Education for
All held in Jomtien, Thailand, and proposed a new set of
time-bound goals and strategies in basic education for the new
decade and beyond. It recommends giving priority to countries in
sub-saharan Africa and South Asia; to other LDCs; and to countries
UN Girls’ Education Initiative launched by SG in April 2000
as a sustained campaign to improve the quality and availability of
girls’ education through a collaborative partnership of different
entities within and outside the UN, with UNICEF as lead agency.
South Summit convened by the Group of 77 in Havana, with 133
developing countries adopting a Declaration which includes specific
consideration of children’s rights and needs and addresses such
issues as women and children in poverty; HIV/AIDS; children in armed
conflict; and the trafficking of women and children. The Declaration
welcomed the decision to convene a special session on children and
expressed full commitment to its preparation.
The 13th International Conference on HIV/AIDS and Sexually
Transmitted Diseases held in Durban, South Africa in July, with the
theme of breaking the silence on AIDS, viewing the epidemic
as a challenge to all sectors of society.
G-8 Summit in Okinawa, Japan in July gave special impetus to
promoting the well-being of children through a special initiative to
combat infectious diseases.
United Nations Millennium Summit, held at UN HQ in New York
(September 6-8) gathers together 185 world leaders and results in a
Summit Millennium Declaration with specific Millennium
Development Goals and commitments regarding children, youth and
women on issues related to U5MR; MMR; HIV-AIDS and AIDS orphans;
malaria and other major diseases; education; young people’s
livelihood; and humanitarian assistance. The Secretary-General's
vision for a renewed UN role and concrete proposals for action as
outlined in his report “We the peoples” was a central focus of the
Millennium Summit. The spouses of 70 heads of state and
government attending the Summit gathered at the Forum on Girls’
Education focusing on the gender gap in education.
The International Conference on War-Affected Children, held
in Winnipeg, Canada in September, convened representatives of
Governments, NGOs, experts and young people around the world to
discuss issues of children affected by armed conflict, with
presentation preliminary recommendations from the Graca Machel
update study on the effects of the Impact of War on Children
(full report published by UNICEF in 2001). The conference aimed at
galvanizing international efforts to strengthen preventive
mechanisms and to end impunity for those who abuse children in
Two Optional protocols to the CRC adopted by the GA (May) on
the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography,
(entering into force in January 2002) and on the involvement of
children in armed conflict (entering into force in February 2002).
UN Convention against Transnational Crime adopted by
Millennium Assembly, along with optional protocol to prevent,
suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and
4 Security Council resolutions on children and women in armed
Beijing +5 takes place at UN HQ in New York (5-9 June 2000)
to review and assess progress made in the implementation of the
Platform of Action of the Fourth World Conference for Women (Beijing
1995). UNICEF takes an active part in review and preparations and
promotes 4 key themes for advocacy: gender equality starts early;
interdependence of women’s rights and girl’s rights; children’s
rights cannot be achieved without girls’ rights; community
partnerships for gender equality are needed to end violence and
Social Summit (Copenhagen + 5) takes place in Geneva (26 June – 1
July) to assess achievements since Copenhagen and to discuss new
initiatives. Participants include close to 2,000 members of
delegations from 178 countries; 1,200 partners from 500 NGOs; 420
media members, representatives of 56 inter-governmental
organizations and staff of UN system and related bodies. After
intensive debates, UN member countries made new commitments to
eradicate poverty, address unemployment and promote social
integration, adopted a final document on ‘further initiatives for
social development’. The meeting included some 150 side events.
Child-Friendly Cities Secretariat established at the UNICEF
Innocenti Research Centre in Florence to support creation of a
world-wide network of cities committed to fulfil a rights-based
agenda for children. This is in direct follow-up to the launch by
UNICEF of the Child friendly Cities Initiative (at Habitat II in
1996) as a movement which places the rights of children at the
centre of municipal planning.
SAARC declares the decade 2000-2010 the decade of Children’s
Total contributions reached US$1,139 million.
SG Kofi Annan is joint recipient with
the UN of the Nobel Peace Prize for 2001 for work on HIV/AIDS
that UNICEF shares in.
Conference on Child Poverty convened in London, 26 February,
by UK Chancellor, Gordon Brown, and UK Secretary of State for
International Development, Clare Short, marking growing trend to
integrate development and finance policy. Participants include the
World Bank, IMF, UNICEF and UNDP as well as NGOs, faith groups and
Birth of African Union and New Partnership for African Development
(NEPAD): African Union established (March 2001) to replace OAU,
becoming operational in July 2002.
Say Yes for Children campaign launched (April 2001) as part
of the Global Movement for Children (GMC), with participation
of Nelson Mandela and Graca Machel. The GMC is a coalition of
governments, UN agencies, non-governmental organizations, private
sector and community groups, families and children dedicated to
improving children's lives. One year later, by the time of the
Special Session for Children in May 2002, it had collected nearly
95 million pledges from people around the world, making it the
largest campaign of its kind, as confirmed by the Guinness Book of
World Records. In submitting their pledges, individuals of all
ages, from all walks of life, and from over 170 countries affirmed
their solidarity with the Global Movement for Children and their
commitment to the 10 critical imperatives identified as necessary
to ensure a better future for children. The campaign stimulated
extensive mobilization around children’s rights at local, national
and regional levels. Founding members of the GMC include the
Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC); Netaid.org
Foundation; PLAN International; Save the Children; UNICEF and World
Vision – later expanded to include Care International.
Regional preparatory processes for the Special Session mobilize a
wide variety of stakeholders around priority concerns for children
and result in a series of regional commitments including: the
Kingston Consensus (October 2000) and the Panama Declaration on
Children and Adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean
(December 2000); the Beijing Declaration on Commitments for Children
in East Asia and the Pacific (May 2001); the Berlin Commitment for
children of Europe and Central Asia (May 2001); the Kathmandu
Understanding on Investing in Children in South Asia (May 2001)
followed by the 11th SAARC Summit Declaration (January 2002); the
African Common Position (May 2001; and the Arab Framework for the
Rights of the Child (March 2001) and the Arab World Fit for Children
‘Road Map’ towards implementation of the Millennium Declaration
developed in response to GA Res 55/162 of 14 December 2001 on
Follow-up to the Millennium Summit.
September 11 Bombing of World Trade Centre leads to postponement of
Special Session to 8-10 May 2001.
2nd World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of
Children, in Yokohoma, Japan (17-20 December) convened as a
follow-up to the 1996 World Congress, adopting the Yokohama Global
Commitment 2001. UNICEF is active in organizing a series of regional
meetings, in collaboration with the co-organizers of the Conference
(Government of Japan; ECPAT International; and the NGO Group for the
Convention on the Rights of the Child).
UNICEF Medium Term Strategic Plan (MTSP) for the period
2002-2005 approved by the Executive Board. The plan combines a
results-based approach to management with a human rights based
approach to programming, and outlines five organizational
priorities: girls’ education’ integrated early childhood
development’ immunization “plus”; fighting HIV/AIDS; and improved
protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and
Total contributions reached US$1,225 million.
Entry into force of the Optional
Protocols to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale
of children, child prostitution and child pornography; and on
children affected by armed conflict.
Special Session on Children held at UN headquarters in New York
(8-10 May) draws unprecedented participation of more than 7,000
people, including 600 children and young people, who present a
message to the General Assembly from the Historic Children’s Forum.
Participants at the Special Session and its supporting events
include broad representation from civil society organizations, the
private sector; religious groups; UN and international agencies; and
governmental delegations, 69 at summit level. The Session represents
a milestone in the burgeoning Global Movement for Children which
emphasizes partnerships and leadership at all levels, and resulted
in a renewal of commitments to children as articulated in A World
Fit for Children. A time-bound plan of action for children is
UNICEF and partners get 7.000 schools running in Afghanistan,
clearing the way for 3 million children to attend school - one third
of them girls.
In Kenya, the largest-ever national immunization effort
undertaken in Africa succeeded in immunizing more than 13 million
children against measles.
UNICEF helps families and caregivers improve their knowledge and
parenting skills in 70 countries. Parents learn about the importance
of birth registration - the recording of a baby's name,
nationality and other data immediately after birth - to ensure the
child's right to an identity and access to social services.
UNICEF supports a massive campaign to promote the use of iodized
salt in China - 51 million additional people - including 800,000
newborns - were protected against iodine deficiency disorders,
including physical, mental and learning disabilities.
Over 4 million insecticide-treated nets were distributed
worldwide to fight malaria, double the number in 2001.
UNICEF supports water, sanitation and hygiene improvement activities
in 86 countries. New water systems are built in Bolivia
reaching 10,000 people in remote regions.
Despite extraordinary advances, UNICEF mobilizes to reach the more
than 30 million children still unimmunized and the even greater
numbers deficient in vitamin A.
'25 by 2005' campaign launched to accelerate progress in 25
countries where girls lag behind boys in enrolment, and where
actions will make the greatest impact. UNICEF also distributes
gender-sensitive textbooks in 18 countries.
UNICEF focuses on three areas to make the greatest impact in the
AIDs epidemic: prevention HIV/AIDs in young people, halting
transmission from parent to child and ensuring care, protection and
support to children orphaned or made vulnerable by AIDS. UNICEF also
supports 'youth-friendly' programmes in which young people taught
each other about AIDS prevention in 71 countries, and also helped to
improve national policies and laws relating to HIV/AIDS in 26
To protect children, UNICEF supports creation of protective
environment through a network of safeguards: enforced laws and
policies, precise data on children, watchful communities,
strengthened school programmes, better trained police and judges,
life skills taught to children and programmes for recovery and
reintegration into society.
UNICEF is active in 160 countries and territories and supported by
37 National Committees.
Total contributions reached US$1,454 million.
Continued to focus efforts to
protect children from the effects of war in Iraq.
UNICEF's fallen hero, Chris Klein-Beekman, along with other
members of the UN family, loses his life in the August bombing of UN
Offices in Baghdad.
To provide the best start in life, UNICEF combines advocacy, social
mobilization, research and direct services to improve emergency
obstetric care in some 3,400 health facilities in 80 countries.
UNICEF has partnered with Columbia University, New York, on
Averting Maternal Death and Disability, a project that works with
Birth registration increases in 85 countries - up from 75 in
2001. Potable water, sanitation facilities and hygiene education are
brought to 91 countries.
US$348 million is spent on vaccines reaching 40 per cent of
children in developing countries. Millions are protected from
measles, yellow fever, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, tuberculosis,
polio and hepatitis B with vaccines that cost a mere 50 cents per
child. US$18 million is spent on insecticide-treated mosquito
The African Girls Education Initiative extends to 34
countries, focusing on nations embroiled in conflict or pummeled by
HIV/AIDS. '25 by 2005' intensifies to achieve gender
parity through advocacy, funding, problem-solving and partnering
with local communities and national officials. Launches 'Go
Girls! Education for Every Child', an outreach campaign
partnered with Fox Kids. The Federation Internationale de Football
Association (FIFA) dedicated the 2003 Women's World Cup to UNICEF
and the 'Go Girls' campaign.
UNICEF supports school-based water, sanitation and hygiene
projects in 73 countries, helping keep girls in school who
suffer most from lack of facilities.
UNICEF convenes Global Partners Forum on orphans and
vulnerable children, gathering representatives from 50 agencies.
36 country offices report that national
strategies for the protection and care of orphans are in place, with
another 32 offices crafting such strategies. UNICEF supports
AIDS orphans in 38 countries in sub-Saharan Africa alone. Publishes
Africa's Orphaned Generations, a comprehensive look at the
pandemics catastrophic effect on families. Kinship networks, the
backbone of family care, have been destroyed. UNICEF provides
support to extended family members, from counselling to paying
school fees. UNICEF, UNAIDS and World Conference on Religions for
Peace produce a booklet on HIV/AIDS to help religious leaders
respond to the pandemic.
To enhance child-protection measures, UNICEF works with
faith-based organizations to safeguard orphans and eliminate
corporeal punishment. By partnering with NGO's UNICEF works to
improve institutional care, dismantle the child sex industry and end
hazardous child labour. UNICEF supports governments in creating
national standards that conform to international guidelines on the
protection of children who are not in the care of their family,
including those detention, prison, foster care, residential and
institutional care. Governments are also encouraged to develop legal
and practical measures for the elimination of trafficking, sexual
exploitation, forced or bonded labour and the use of child soldiers.
UNICEF is also helping to design, fund and implement interventions
and programmes that reduce physical and psychological violence
Child labour also entails trafficking, prostitution, pornography and
participation in armed conflict. UNICEF is at the forefront of
exposing these abuses and rallying support to end these
crimes. UNICEF develops Guidelines for the Protection of the
Rights of Children Victims of Trafficking, which sets standards
for protecting child victims.
Supplies valued at US$709 million excluding freight are
procured, a record increase of 32 per cent from 2002.
The value of procurement for the Iraq crisis exceeded $51
million, an unprecedented amount to be spent on a single emergency
in one year.
Change for Good, an ongoing alliance between UNICEF and the
international airline industry, has raised over US$50 million
since 1991 by encouraging passengers to donate unused foreign
currency to UNICEF.
Total contributions reached $1,688 million.
An estimated 200,000 people across
Asia and eastern Africa were left dead or missing and hundreds
of thousands more displaced after the devastating earthquake and
tsunami in the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004. Children
accounted for more than one-third of the casualties.
UNICEF's responds swiftly based on its
long presence in or near all of the affected countries.
Priorities were keeping children alive, caring for those separated
from their families, protecting children from exploitation and
abuse, and getting children quickly back to school. Designated
as the lead UN agency in water and sanitation, child protection and
education, UNICEF works closely with partners to ensure service
delivery and UNICEF mobilizes its entire global network to do so.
The massive destruction and loss of life required an
unprecedented emergency response. A unique international relief
effort prevented any major outbreaks of disease and has since
provided for the general health and well-being of hundreds of
thousands of people. However, 12 months later, tens of thousands of
families are still in temporary encampments and the process of
rebuilding is just beginning to move from conference rooms and
drawing boards to bricks and mortar. Yet every week has brought
progress. People have been kept alive and healthy. Families have
been reunited. More than 90 per cent of children were back in school
within three months. Temporary schools and health centres have been
built. And while these basic services have taken shape – often with
community consultation – policies and standards are being put in
place by national legislatures and local governments. UNICEF country
teams across the tsunami zone have played an important role in this
enormous undertaking, from delivering immediate relief and ongoing
care, to suggesting sensible standards and policies related to
children, to actually building supplying schools, health centres,
water and sanitation systems, and other facilities to improve the
lives of children and families.
As key international deadlines for achieving gender parity in
education approach, the '25 by 2005' initiative leads an
unprecedented partnership that is tapping into intensive, all-out
methods to get more girls in school involving surveys to determine
reasons for absenteeism. 115 million children still are not in
primary school because of prohibitive school fees, lack of
school materials, or need to do housework or fetch water. The
initiative supports regional focal points, creates a Global Advisory
Committee and develops a work plan and continues to promote
2004 educational supply spotlight:
• Procured educational materials valued at $71 million.
• Distributed 11,000 school-in-the-box kits and 8,200 replenishment
kits to 32 countries.
• Designed special school-in-the-box kits for the Democratic
Republic of the Congo: 46,000 kits for classrooms and 6,800 for
• Provided assistance for over 5 million students and 17,000 schools
Emergency response to the Darfur, Sudan was halting in 2003
and early 2004 even as the number of displaced grew to more than 2
million. There were also ongoing grave violations of women and
children including rape and militia attacks. Many babies born of
rape are abandoned. Affected people are unreachable due to
insecurity and remote locations. Activating a new emergency
response mechanisms UNICEF was able to better focus on needs of the
Psychosocial support, child-friendly spaces, recreation activities
are provided. Children separated from parents or caregivers are
registered and referred to partners for assistance. 1.4 million
people are given access to primary health care. More than 2 million
children are vaccinated against measles. Hygiene campaigns arrested
outbreaks of diarrhoea and cholera. Save drinking water was ensured
for 1.1 million people through borehole drilling and training to
repair hand pumps. 30,000 latrines are constructed. 140,000
primary-school-age children resume school. By the end of the year
however only 40-60 per cent of the affected population receives
UNICEF provides emergency medical supplies to local hospitals and
psychosocial support to the rehabilitation centre in Beslan,
North Ossetia, Russian Federation in the aftermath of the siege of
School Number 1 leaving 350 dead, more than half of them children.
Attention to the health of newborns under four-weeks is
highlighted in the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood
Illnesses (IMNCI). UNICEF's early childhood development work seeks
to expand coverage of high-impact health and nutrition programmes to
tackle major causes of child deaths, improve care practices and
increase levels of birth registration.
Global polio efforts are set back by a major outbreak in 2004
in West and Central Africa brought on by several factors, spreading
from Nigeria into Sudan, paralyzing children in 12 previously
polio-free countries. Colossal efforts are undertaken to stem the
outbreak, to reach every child in 23 countries, and using the media
to regain public trust in the oral polio vaccine. Heads of state,
ministers and governors throughout the region are actively engaged
in advocacy. This networking resulted in the Pan-African Forum on
Building Trust for Immunization and Child Survival with Religious
and Traditional Leaders and the Media in October in Dakar, Senegal.
511 million doses of the polio vaccine are used.
By October the world's largest synchronize vaccination campaign
reaches 80 million children under five in the 23 countries. A second
round in November reaches 80 million children.
UNICEF procurement of antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS and
testing and diagnostics materials increases substantially, totalling
a value of US$26 million, compared to US$2 million in 2002.
BAM, Islamic Republic of Iran loses 30,000 lives in the 23
December earthquake. UNICEF gets supplies to BAM within 48 hours,
including water, medicines, equipment, generators and tents. Helps
unit children with kin or next-of-kin. After immediate threats of
injury and exposure, illness and disease, dislocation and separation
are dealt with, longer-term threats of hopelessness and apathy are
eased by providing schooling in inflatable tents and psychosocial
counselling. Reconstruction efforts are rooted in the idea of
child-friendly cities, an initiative that promotes sustainable,
healthy and child-friendly environments.
Natural disasters and man-made crises - floods, multiple
hurricanes and political unrest - take a heavy toll on the
Caribbean. Children loose homes, schools and access to clean
water and sanitation, health and social services. UNICEF put its
Core Commitments for Children in Emergencies into action over
and over throughout the year.
UNICEF procurement reaches a total value of US$797 million, a 12 per
cent increase over 2003.
Total contributions reached $1,978 million.